Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Your bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. Many of them die in the bone marrow. This means that you do not have enough healthy cells, which can lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding.

Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are sometimes found during a routine blood test. If you have symptoms, they may include

  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or feeling tired
  • Skin that is paler than usual
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Pinpoint spots under the skin caused by bleeding
  • Fever or frequent infections

Myelodysplastic syndromes are rare. People at higher risk are over 60, have had chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or have been exposed to certain chemicals. Treatment options include transfusions, drug therapy, chemotherapy, and blood or bone marrow stem cell transplants.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

Different Conditions

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Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms

This entity includes cases that have clinical, laboratory, and morphologic features that support the diagnosis of both a myelodysplastic syndrome and a myeloproliferative neoplasm, but do not meet the criteria for any of the other entities included in the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm category.

Also Known As

  • Myelodysplastic disease, unclassifiable
  • Myeloproliferative disease, unclassifiable
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code C94.6

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    Myelodysplastic syndromes

    A myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by an anemia in which 15% or more of the erythroid precursors are ringed sideroblasts. The ring sideroblast is an erythroid precursor in which one third or more of the nucleus is encircled by granules which are positive for iron stain.

    Organ Affected

    Sideroblast (cell)|Blood (substance)

    Causes

    Myelodysplasia

    Abbreviated Terms

  • refractory sideroblastic anaemia
  • refractory anaemia with hemochromatosis
  • Also Known As

  • refractory anaemia with sideroblasts
  • acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia
  • RARS - [refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts]
  • primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code D46.1

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    Also Known As

  • RAEB 2 - [Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts type 2]
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code D46.2

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