Kidney Cysts

A cyst is a fluid-filled sac. You may get simple kidney cysts as you age; they are usually harmless. There are also some diseases which cause kidney cysts. One type is polycystic kidney disease (PKD). It runs in families. In PKD, many cysts grow in the kidneys. This can enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly. About half of people with the most common type of PKD end up with kidney failure. PKD also causes cysts in other parts of the body, such as the liver.

Often, there are no symptoms at first. Later, symptoms include

  • Pain in the back and lower sides
  • Headaches
  • Blood in the urine

Doctors diagnose PKD with imaging tests and family history. There is no cure. Treatments can help with symptoms and complications. They include medicines and lifestyle changes, and if there is kidney failure, dialysis or kidney transplants.

Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) happens in people who have chronic kidney disease, especially if they are on dialysis. Unlike PKD, the kidneys are normal sized, and cysts do not form in other parts of the body. ACKD often has no symptoms. Usually, the cysts are harmless and do not need treatment. If they do cause complications, treatments include medicines, draining the cysts, or surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Different Conditions

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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease due to mutations on Polycystin1 gene on chromosome 16 (PKD1 gene)

Also Known As

  • ADPCKD1 - [autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 1]
  • APCKD1 - [autosomal polycystic kidney disease type 1]
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.2

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    Abbreviated Terms

  • hydroencephalocele
  • meningoencephalocele
  • cranial hydromeningocele
  • cerebral meningocele
  • Also Known As

  • encephalomyelocele
  • Cranium bifidum
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q01

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    Chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis associated with familial or genetic diseases

    A disease of the kidney caused by inheritance of an autosomal dominant trait. The genetic abnormality is in the coding for mucin 1 (MUC-1) on chromosome 1. Clinically there is familial progressive renal functional impairment ultimately leading to renal failure usually between 20 and 50 years. Hyperuricemia and gout are not a feature. There is atrophy of the kidneys and thinning of the cortex. Histology is of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with fibrosis. Cystic changes are uncommon and if present are in the cortex not the medulla. Immunostaining can demonstrate intracellular accumulation of MUC-1 frameship protein in distal tubular cells

    Signs And Symptoms

  • Cyst form of protozoa (organism)
  • Cyst (morphologic abnormality)
  • Organ Affected

    Kidney structure (body structure)|Entire kidney (body structure)

    Abbreviated Terms

  • sponge kidney
  • sponge kidney NOS
  • Also Known As

  • autosomal recessive medullary cystic disease
  • nephronopthisis
  • medullary cystic kidney disease, Type 1
  • Mucin-1 Kidney disease
  • ADTKD-MUC1 [autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease MUC1]
  • MCKD - [medullary cystic kidney disease] type 1
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.5

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    Complex renal cyst

    Single complex cyst in a kidney.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code N28.1

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    Congenital single renal cyst

    A single cyst noted in a kidney. No other structural abnormality of the kidney or urinary tract noted. Often considered a normal variant provided remains a single cyst.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.0

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    Cyst adjacent to renal pelvis

    A closed, fluid, air, or semi-solid material filled sac located in the renal pelvis or calices.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code N28.1

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    Cystic or dysplastic kidney disease

    Diseases where there are developmental anatomical or pathological changes in the renal substance not occurring in a familial distribution and not known to have a mono-genetic cause.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code N28.1

    ----------------------

    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q01

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    Hereditary cystic or dysplastic kidney disease, dominant inheritance

    Multiple cysts in both kidneys increasing in number and size from adolescence, associated with development of hypertension and chronic renal failure. Autosomal dominant familial pattern is usual and due to mutations on Chromosomes 16 and 4. Non-renal manifestations can include cysts in the liver and less commonly pancreas,. Cerebral arterial aneurysms with subarachnoid haemorrhage, and other non-renal vascular abnormalities can also occur.

    Also Known As

  • adult polycystic kidney disease
  • Polycystic kidney, adult type
  • APCKD - [autosomal polycystic kidney disease]
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.2

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    Hereditary cystic or dysplastic kidney disease, recessive inheritance

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is an inherited condition characterised by multiple cysts affecting the collecting ducts giving rise to nephromegaly, arterial hypertension, urinary tract infection and chronic kidney disease (failure). Liver involvement (biliary abnormalities, cholangitis, portal hypertension) are frequently associated.

    Signs And Symptoms

  • Cyst form of protozoa (organism)
  • Cyst (morphologic abnormality)
  • Organ Affected

    Kidney structure (body structure)|Entire kidney (body structure)

    Also Known As

  • Polycystic kidney, infantile type
  • autosomal recessive infantile polycystic kidney disease
  • autosomal recessive polycystic kidney
  • infantile polycystic kidney disease
  • polycystic kidney disease, infantile type
  • ARPKD - [autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease]
  • multiple infantile type cyst of kidney
  • IPKD - [infantile polycystic kidney disease]
  • infantile type polycystic degeneration of kidney
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.1

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    Loculated renal cyst

    Single loculated cyst in a kidney.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code N28.1

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    Nonfamilial nongenetic cystic kidney disease

    Cystic structures adjacent to the renal pelvis. Can be difficult to define the exact anatomical location.

    Abbreviated Terms

  • Renal sinus cyst
  • Renal hilar cyst
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code N28.1

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    Primary renal dysplasia

    Unilateral renal dysplasia is a form of renal dysplasia, a renal tract malformation in which the development of one kidney is abnormal and incomplete. Unilateral renal dysplasia can be segmental, and of variable severity, with renal aplasia corresponding to extreme renal dysplasia.

    Also Known As

  • unilateral renal dysplasia
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.4

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    Renal dysplasia

    A condition characterized by abnormal development of one or both kidneys as a consequence of another disorder that has an impact on the kidneys, such as in utero urinary tract obstruction or hereditary or multi-system syndrome.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.4

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    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.4

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    Simple renal cyst

    The presence of multiple simple renal cysts in one or both kidneys. Not regarded as a cause of renal failure, but can occur as a complication of renal fibrosis, and is associated with advanced age.
    Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code N28.1

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    Structural developmental anomalies of kidneys

    A single cyst in a kidney, noted in utero or from birth. No other structural abnormality of the kidney or urinary tract noted.

    Signs And Symptoms

  • Cyst form of protozoa (organism)
  • Cyst (morphologic abnormality)
  • Organ Affected

    Kidney structure (body structure)|Entire kidney (body structure)

    Also Known As

  • Single congenital cyst of kidney
  • Related ICD 10 COde
    ICD 10 Code Q61.0

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