Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness
Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is a form of diabetes that is often accompanied by hearing loss, especially of high tones. The diabetes in MIDD is characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin, which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. In MIDD, the diabetes and hearing loss usually develop in mid-adulthood, although the age that they occur varies from childhood to late adulthood. Typically, hearing loss occurs before diabetes.Some people with MIDD develop an eye disorder called macular retinal dystrophy, which is characterized by colored patches in the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (the retina). This disorder does not usually cause vision problems in people with MIDD. Individuals with MIDD also may experience muscle cramps or weakness, particularly during exercise; heart problems; kidney disease; and constipation. Individuals with MIDD are often shorter than their peers.